Turkish political thought is alleged to have developed by way of three varieties or kinds (“üç tarz”) towards the finish of World War I: Ottomanism, Islamism and nationalism. The Turkish phrase for “three kinds” entered into use in numerous topics as soon as it turned widespread amongst the intellectuals. Nobody would discover it peculiar when you point out the three varieties of cooking utilizing its Ottoman Turkish model, “üç tarz-ı.”
However, many individuals have forgotten or by no means realized the actual supply of the three kinds of discourse. “Üç tarz-ı siyaset” (“Three kinds of politics”) was the title of an extended article written by Yusuf Akçura, one of the early authors of Turkish nationalism in the Abdülhamid II period. Akçura gave an intensive historic abstract of the three kinds of politics, saying that the Ottoman rulers skilled the first two kinds whereas the latter was solely talked about in some writings of sure authors. In the finish, as a substitute of figuring out any of the three identities as superior, Akçura asks: “The query that has occupied me nonetheless stays: Which of the political kinds, that of Muslims or Turks, could be extra helpful and possible for the Ottoman State?”
Akçura was born on Dec. 2, 1876, in Simbir (now Ulyanovsk) to a rich, noble Crimean Turkish household. His father, Hasan Akçurin, ran a baize manufacturing facility in Kazan, whereas his mom, Bibi Kamer Banu, was a housewife. He misplaced his father at the age of 2, and his mom died in a extreme accident in 1883, which led his household to maneuver to Istanbul.
His mom Banu remarried an Istanbul resident, Osman Bey from Dagestan, who took care of Yusuf and helped him obtain correct schooling in army colleges. Akçura graduated from the Kuleli Military High School and enrolled at Harbiyye (Military College) in 1892. However, he was arrested for his political actions throughout his second yr at the army school. The faculty administration allowed him to return after serving his time period since his professors deemed him a hard-working pupil.
After his commencement, Akçura was arrested once more as a result of of his reference to the İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti (Committee of Progress and Union, CPU), the secret revolutionary social gathering that labored to press Abdülhamid II to announce the Constitution once more. In his memoirs, he admits that his nationalist emotions have been born throughout his second arrest.
Akçura was exiled to Tripoli in 1897, collectively together with his comrades from the CPU. However, he was later launched, and his army rank was restored. He labored as a trainer and clerk at the common workers workplace in Tripoli for some time earlier than fleeing to Tunisia in 1899 to achieve Europe from there to proceed his research in the next schooling establishment.
Among the runaways of the CPU, Akçura was maybe the one who finest utilized the greater schooling potentialities in Europe. He enrolled at the Ecole Libre de Sciences Politique (School of Political Sciences) in Paris. There he met Ahmet Rıza, the chief of the Young Turk motion in exile, and commenced to jot down in Şura-yı Ümmet (Council of the Ummah), the official periodical revealed by the CPU department in Paris.
Akçura visited Kazan, the place he wrote his well-known article, “Üç Tarz-ı Siyaset,” after graduating from the college in 1903. He despatched the article to the “Muteber Türk” (“The Respected Turk”) journal in Cairo to ensure that it to be revealed in installments from April to May 1904. Ali Kemal, a number one Ottoman journalist, wrote a critique of Akçura’s article, accusing him of daydreaming, which actually didn’t meet the socio-political evaluation of Akçura. Kemal argued that the three identities, particularly Ottoman, Turk and Muslim, can’t be separated from one another. Thus, there was no have to renew work counting on any of these. The solely factor the Muslim Ottoman Turks would do was to remain as they have been. Later occasions of historical past would show Akçura proper whereas Kemal’s response could be erased eternally, solely to be noticed by the historians.
Teacher, writer, politician
Akçura didn’t go away Kazan till the announcement of the Second Constitution in 1908. There, he labored as a trainer alongside together with his actions as a writer and politician. He was concerned with the Russian Muslims’ motion, “Cedidçilik, a modernist Muslim motion in Russia. He revealed a journal named “Kazan Muhbiri” (“Kazan Reporter”) to propagate his nationalist concepts amongst the Muslims. He additionally revealed a guide named “Ulum ve Tarih” (“The Sciences and History”) in 1906 in Kazan.
He didn’t have the alternative to be elected for the Duma, the Russian parliament, since the Russian imperial authorities arrested and saved him in jail for 43 days with the intention to forestall him from being elected. He revealed his jail memoirs, particularly “Mevkufiyet Hatıraları” (“Memoirs of a Prison”), in 1907. Eventually, Akçura returned to Istanbul after Abdülhamid II introduced the Second Constitution after the CPU revolts in the Balkans.
Akçura’s contributions in Istanbul throughout the Second Constitutional period embrace his efforts to create nationalist associations corresponding to the “Türk Yurdu,” which means Turkish residence. He was additionally lively with the periodical of the affiliation carrying the similar identify. Akçura attended a number of worldwide conferences in Europe regarding the scenario of the Russian Muslims throughout World War I. He additionally represented the Ottoman Red Crescent Association in Europe and Russia. At the finish of the Great War, the English occupiers arrested Akçura.
After his launch, Akçura married and moved to Ankara in 1920 with the intention to take part in the National Struggle in Anatolia. He labored for the Ministry of Education earlier than he was transferred to the headquarters of Kazım Karabekir as a reserve officer.
After the War of Independence was gained and the Republic was introduced, Akçura stayed amongst the interior circle of the Kemalists. He remained a member of Parliament, to which he was elected in 1924, till his dying. He was assigned as the chairman of the Turkish History Institution in 1932 and in addition served as a historical past professor at Istanbul University after the so-called college reform.
Akçura died on Mar. 11, 1935, in Istanbul. His grave is at the Edirnekapı Martyrs Cemetery.
Though he wrote many articles and books on historical past and politics, the well-known “Üç Tarz-ı Siyaset” article remains to be thought-about his masterpiece because of its affect on Turkish nationalists, together with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Some folks suppose that Akçura’s articles have been used as the political program of Kemalism throughout the early Republican period. Akçura’s predominant concept that Islamism and Ottomanism weren’t succesful of rescuing the Turks and that solely Turkish nationalism was legitimate as an ideology to kind a nation of Ottoman Muslims was mirrored in the ideas of Atatürk in his well-known “Nutuk” (“The Speech”).