The celebration held in Hagia Sophia final week on the event of the 567th yr of the Conquest of Istanbul created fairly a stir. As a part of the celebrations, Surah al-Fath was recited, and the opening of Hagia Sophia as a mosque drew noteworthy consideration in social media. This problem of Hagia Sophia has at all times remained recent in the public conscience as it’s the image of the Conquest of Istanbul.
The lifetime of Sultan Mehmed II, aka Mehmed the Conqueror, and the Conquest of Istanbul have at all times been a supply of nice curiosity, which can also be mirrored in tradition and humanities. In the media, we see productions that target these points. However, the present productions aren’t of a high quality worthy of the glory of Sultan Mehmed II.
In addition to his army and political achievements, Sultan Mehmed II additionally stands out as an mental genius. In addition to the social branches similar to faith, legislation, politics, historical past, artwork and philosophy, he additionally had a grasp of a number of scientific disciplines similar to arithmetic, geometry and metallurgy. After the Conquest of Istanbul, he established the construction of a big state with the physique of data he acquired in social sciences on the one hand, whereas making innovations that will change the course of world struggle historical past on the different.
There are two principal causes for all these achievements: His good schooling and love for books. Before the Conquest of Istanbul, he had established a library in Manisa throughout his princely interval. Then he moved this library to Edirne and made preparations for the conquest with the infrastructure he obtained from these works.
Books of all languages
Sultan Mehmed made nice contributions to grammar. He was an avid reader and spoke many languages.
He was well-versed in the literature of his mom tongue Turkish and wrote many poems underneath the pseudonym “Avni.” He may communicate totally different dialects of Turkish, similar to Uyghur and Chagatai. He was additionally fairly fluent in Arabic and Persian. Among the languages that he spoke are Greek, Serbian, Latin, Italian, and Hebrew.
One of the first buildings constructed after the conquest was a library in the Beyazıd Old Palace. Known as the first library established in Istanbul, it was later moved to the New Palace. He additionally made nice efforts to deliver the most necessary sources of Islamic science historical past to the Palace Library.
Since he was a scholar and an artist himself, the significance he hooked up to science and artwork may be very clear. He needed to make Istanbul an exquisite metropolis in each respect. He made certain the buildings constructed throughout his interval have been adorned with the most stunning tiles and numerous carvings. He based an artwork institute known as “Nakkaşhane” in Topkapı Palace and introduced right here the most necessary artisans of Anatolia and Edirne.
The Nakkaşhane housed well-known calligraphers, bookbinders, miniaturists and college students from throughout the nation. This group labored on adorning new palaces, buildings, mosques and masjids and likewise duplicated many uncommon manuscripts for the sultan’s private library.
There isn’t any clear details about the variety of books stored on this library throughout the interval of Sultan Mehmed. However, in the catalog ready in 1502 in the interval of Sultan Bayezid II, the identities of seven,200 works in 5,700 volumes got. Considering this, the Sultan Mehmed interval may be thought-about fairly wealthy by way of the palace library.
Sultan was at all times on good phrases with scientists he met and approached them with the humble angle of a pupil. It is talked about in all sources that he at all times had an urge for food for studying. He took the foundations of the empire together with his high-grade college named “Sahn-ı Seman” or “Semâniyye,” a 15th-century Ottoman Madrasah complicated in Istanbul which was based by Sultan Mehmed with students as a part of the Fatih Mosque.
In the palace, he adopted the debates and conversations of scientists with curiosity. It is understood that when the debates of Hocazade Muslihuddin and Alaaddin Ali Tusi went on for seven days. The topic of the debate was associated to Abu Hamid al-Ghazali’s ebook “Tehafüt’ül- Felasife” (The Incoherence of the Philosophers). Al-Ghazali was a Persian scholar considered one in all the most outstanding and influential Muslim theologians, jurists and mystics of Sunni Islam. Muslim scholar and mental Ibn Rushd, also known as Averroes, wrote a counterargument towards Al-Ghazali, accusing him of dulling the thoughts and thought.
When the students who mentioned these two books from numerous backgrounds reported their evaluations, Sultan Mehmed requested his two academics to put in writing books on this topic. Hocazade accomplished his ebook in 4 months whereas Ali Tusi delivered his in six months. As a consequence, they proved that Al-Ghazali was proper. Upon this, the sultan rewarded them with 10,000 cash for these books.
He was fairly enthusiastic about historical past. He is understood to have examine the lifetime of Alexander the Great in nice element. Some commentators have opined that he aspired to be like Alexander the Great; nevertheless, such conjectures are baseless.
As a matter of truth, he made Ferdawsi-i Rumi, one in all the poets of that interval, write “Süleymanname,” an illustration of Sultan Suleiman I’s life and his achievements. The cause for this can be a dialogue between the sultan and Mahmud Pasha. “Why are there so many volumes on Alexander the Great however none on Suleiman?” the sultan requested Mahmud Pasha. “The world has not seen a fantastic sultan like Suleiman.” They in contrast these two personalities for a very long time. The preface cites this as the cause why this ebook was written.
There are many different books ordered by Sultan Mehmed because of debates and ebook chats.
Orientalists drew a legendary determine on the problem of books learn by Sultan Mehmed II. The interpretations constructed on the work of orientalists similar to Paul Emil Jacobs, who was a German painter famend for Orientalist themes, portraits, over time encompass assumptions which are removed from the historic methodology.
The palace library is the most necessary supply from which we are able to find out about the sort of books that he was enthusiastic about. He stored many books on all non secular sciences similar to Islamic legislation, hadith, kalam and tafsir in the historical past of Islam there. He is alleged to have taken over an enormous library as the Byzantine spoils of struggle, however its nature is unknown.
He can also be identified to have been carefully associated to the cultural heritage of Greek and Rome. He made makes an attempt to deliver a few of the works written in these languages into his library and have them translated. He additionally made efforts to gather Latin works. His curiosity and curiosity in books dates again to his childhood.
Molla’s efforts for books
It is just not potential to grasp Sultan Mehmed’s mental physique of data with out taking a better have a look at the scientists that skilled him and the students he engaged in conversations.
It is alleged in the narrations about Sultan Mehmed’s childhood that he was cussed and didn’t take heed to his academics. There is a reputation that led him to books: Shams al-Din Ahmad bin Ismail (Molla Gürani).
Sultan Murad II was anxious that his son was not receiving an excellent schooling. Therefore, he was looking for an excellent instructor. One day, when Molla Yegan, one in all the scientists of the interval, returned from the pilgrimage, he appeared earlier than the sultan. “What present did you deliver us from the place you traveled?” Sultan Murad II then requested. “I introduced a scholar raised in tafsir and hadith,” Molla Yegan replied. This particular person was none aside from Molla Gürani.
Sultan Murad was very happy. He appointed Molla Gürani as a professor. When Sultan Murad heard that he was an excellent tutor, he requested him to boost his son Mehmed. He gave him all types of energy. According to the narration of historian Hoca Sadeddin Efendi, an Ottoman scholar, official and historian, Molla Gürani would apply a way he had by no means seen earlier than.
When he realized Mehmed didn’t take heed to the lesson, he mentioned he may beat him as a instructor if crucial. However, Mehmed was not afraid of those phrases and maintained the identical angle. He took out a stick from the backside of his gown and made him research the Arabic verse, “darabtuhu te’diben / I hit him to coach.” After this case, Mehmed modified his angle of not studying and never listening to his academics.
With these totally different and disciplined coaching strategies of Molla Gürani, he made nice progress in a short while. He skilled him very good, each scientifically and spiritually. Although Sultan Mehmed needed to make him a vizier after the Conquest of Istanbul between 1446 and 1451, he refused, saying that “so many gents have labored to be viziers, they need to not break their hopes.” The rumor has it that he would solely name him Mehmed after he ascended to the throne.
Sultan Mehmed II owes this library, which he carried from Manisa to Edirne, and his acquisition from the preparations of the conquest to his instructor. Among his different tutors are Molla Hüsrev, Molla Zeyrek, Molla Ilyas, Hoca Yusuf Sinan Pasha, Ahmed Pasha, Hocazade Muslihuddin and Hoca Akshamsaddin. He additionally had Italian academics, together with Ciriaco Anconitano and historian Giovanni Maria Angioello.