Turkey’s exploration actions in the Eastern Mediterranean are throughout the framework of worldwide law, experts say, after Athens’ allegations that Ankara has violated its rights in the Eastern Mediterranean continental shelf utilizing a small islet a couple of miles away from Turkey’s coast as an excuse.
The area the place Turkey’s seismic survey vessel Oruç Reis operates isn’t throughout the Greek unique financial zone (EEZ) as arguments by Athens on the islands’ continental shelf rights don’t correspond to worldwide law, Mehmet Efe Biresselioğlu, the top of Sustainable Energy Division and Faculty member of Political Science and International Relations Department of the Izmir University of Economics, mentioned.
Contesting the Greek opposite declarations, Biresselioğlu urged that Greece abide by the precept of ‘equitable sharing’ since it’s a signatory of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
As a part of its hydrocarbon exploration actions, Turkey’s navy on June 21 issued an advisory, often known as NAVTEX, for seismic surveys by Oruç Reis and two assist vessels in waters south of the Greek islands of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kastellorizo (Meis in Turkish, Megisti in Greek) by way of Aug. 2.
Greece mentioned it was an try by Ankara to encroach on its continental shelf.
The Turkish authorities rejected the Greek stance saying that the island of Kastellorizo – positioned about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) to the Turkish coast and 580 kilometers (360 miles) to the Greek coast – makes up 40,000 sq. kilometers (15,444 sq. miles) of the continental shelf.
This makes “Greece’s maximalist continental shelf claims primarily based on islands far from its mainland incompatible with worldwide law and court docket choices,” the Foreign Ministry mentioned Wednesday.
Moreover, one other Turkish seismic vessel – Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa – had beforehand held actions in the identical territory.
The Greek assertion is predicated on its maritime precept in keeping with which islets are considered as “mainland;” nevertheless, such views don’t correspond to worldwide law.
The precept of equidistance doesn’t maintain worth in the context of delimitation of EEZs and continental cabinets in worldwide law.
The elementary rule in each worldwide law and the UNCLOS is predicated on the precept of equal sharing. This precept permits islands to have comparatively much less space of continental shelf and EEZ, in truth, the islands may even get fully surrounded. At this level, there are a number of components considered, reminiscent of the dimensions and site of those landscapes, and their distance to the mainland.
In addition, the marine area the Turkish vessel is about to discover falls beneath the continental shelf Ankara administration declared to the U.N. and license blocks granted to Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO) – Turkey’s nationwide oil firm – in 2012.
Oruç Reis stays anchored on the port of Antalya, in southeastern Turkey, however a navigational telex issued by the port says the mission deliberate by way of Aug. 2 stays “legitimate and efficient.”
Hakan Karan, a professor at Ankara University’s Faculty of Law, mentioned the space of islands to the mainland and their closeness to different nations stands as crucial facet of such particular situations.
Referring to the islands distant from the mainland and near different nations, he mentioned the worldwide law doesn’t authorize, or barely authorizes, nations to determine maritime boundaries.
He went on to say that the Kastellorizo island was a typical instance in this sense and Greek claims of declaring boundaries violated the precept of fairness.
“An island with lower than 12 sq. kilometers space of floor, positioned 2 kilometers to Turkey and 580 kilometers away from Greece can’t be granted continental shelf or EEZ,” he was cited as saying by Anadolu Agency (AA).
He additional famous that the International Court of Justice (ICJ) lately adopted a prejudication relating to the maritime border dispute between Romania and Ukraine, saying the Snake Island – which belongs to Ukraine however is nearer to Romania – had no impact in the context of demarcation.
According to worldwide conventions, Energy Law Research Institute Chairman Süleyman Boşça mentioned that littoral states have rights on a continental shelf that’s 200 miles away from the nation’s baseline.
Boşça famous that it’s a pure proper that doesn’t should be declared.
“The settlement between Greece and Italy on maritime boundaries to determine an unique financial zone final month was primarily based on and decided by their mainlands, which suggests Greece implicitly admits that the islands should not have rights to continental cabinets and unique financial zones,” he defined.
He argued that in the present scenario, the islands that belong to Greece are on the pure extension of Turkey and due to this fact can’t be thought of a continental shelf.
Since the selections of the ICJ said that the dedication of the continental shelf needs to be carried out throughout the framework of the “equitable rules,” Bohça added, Greece’s analysis of the islands inside its continental shelf can be opposite to the mentioned equitable rules.
On the opposite hand, he careworn this strategy can be opposite to the rule in the Lausanne Treaty that Turkey and Greece profit equally from the Aegean Sea.
Boşça additionally recalled that Turkey delivered geographic coordinates relating to the continental shelf to the United Nations in February after the final November’s settlement with the internationally acknowledged authorities of Libya on the maritime boundaries of the 2 nations in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Boşça mentioned the areas that Turkey is focusing its research on with the Oruç Reis are elements the place Turkish Petroleum Corporation was granted seven licenses, and which fall beneath the maritime zone pact between Turkey and Libya.
İzmir University of Economics’s Biresselioğlu steered that the actions of Oruç Reis don’t violate Greece’s EEZ as outlined by the U.N. regulation on continental cabinets.
“Greece is obliged to abide by the ‘equitable rules’ of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The distance of islands to the mainland, their dimension and lengths are determinant components in the applying of this precept. The distance between Greece and Kastellorizo island is 580 kilometers, whereas it’s positioned solely two kilometers away from Turkey’s mainland,” he famous. “The Greek claims over a continental shelf that covers tens of hundreds of sq. kilometers are fully in opposition to the ‘equitable share’ precept of the UNCLOS of which Greece is a signatory state.”
Research Center For Energy Strategies and Policies of Turkey (TESPAM) director Oğuzhan Akyener mentioned that figuring out continental shelf primarily based on distant islands is in opposition to the worldwide law.
He famous that land frontage, distance to the mainland and site are the principle standards of continental cabinets. “Within this context, Greek aspect’s claims are null and void in phrases of worldwide law,” he mentioned.
“There are many precedent agreements on the problem together with accords between Greece and Italy, England and France, Nicaragua and Colombia, Libya and Malta, Tunisia and Italy and Papua New Guinea and Australia,” he mentioned.